Some specialized tests- What is Biopsy Test and Abdominal Paracentesis Procedure & Risks

Some specialized tests- What is Biopsy Test and Abdominal Paracentesis Procedure & Risks

Sometimes one consults a doctor and initial tests suggest that an area of tissue isn’t normal. In such cases, the consultant may ask for a closer examination of the tissue under the microscope to come to a definitive diagnosis. Biopsy is done to confirm a diagnosis and also to determine the extent of disease.

In this article we will discuss biopsy test and paracentesis and their need for diagnosis. During routine check-up or consultation for pain, swelling or other symptoms in the body, doctors might suggest that you get a biopsy test, to get a definitive diagnosis.

What is biopsy? It is the testing of a tissue sample from a mass, abnormal thickening or area in the body that seems to be afflicted by disease. Biopsy tests are performed for liver, kidney, stomach and various other major organs.

Abdominal Paracentesis:
Sometimes due to various reasons, there can be a fluid build-up in your abdomen, known as ascites. Paracentesis is a form of body fluid sampling to determine the cause of its accumulation.

When caused in the peritoneal cavity surrounding the abdominal organs, a procedure known as abdominal paracentesis is performed to remove the excess fluid and test it. Paracentesis is performed by taking the fluid with a needle, and is then tested in a lab. This procedure can help find infection or cancer, either primary or metastatic. Abdominal paracentesis is also used to help remove excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity to reduce pressure.

This procedure does involve some risks, which though rare could happen even in the most trained hands. The needle used for abdominal paracentesis, could accidently cause injury to surrounding blood vessels or organs. Infection and excessive bleeding are other complications can occur. Use of ultrasound guided technique has shown that bleeding and perforation of organs can be minimized. 

In case of cancer development, the use of the needle to remove tissue for testing can cause risks of spreading the cancerous cells. Due to sudden removal of excessive fluid, your body could go into shock causing your blood pressure to drop drastically. In such cases, you will be administered with IV drips or medication to normalize the blood pressure. In rare cases, abdominal paracentesis will affect normal functions of the kidneys.

Types of Biopsy Test
Biopsy tests are done when a doctor needs to establish a definite diagnosis of a mass, lesion or thickened area which is suspicious looking.  The tissue is viewed under the microscope or sometimes subjected to chemical tests to establish diagnosis. The biopsy procedure is carried out in one of three ways: needle access to tissues, CT-scanner to direct the needle more accurately at tissues and ultrasound used to guide the needle. Biopsy may be done when the entire mass or suspicious looking area is excised and sent for examination.

The different types of biopsy procedures are used to diagnose liver, kidney and prostate cancer after testing tissue from these organs. In addition, bone cancer, bone marrow failures, and development of leukemia (blood cell cancer) are also detected by biopsy tests. In certain cases skin biopsy is performed for a cylindrical piece of tissue to be removed and tested. In cases where the tissue is difficult to reach or detect, surgical biopsy is performed.

Biopsies are of several types: a punch biopsy, needle biopsy, endoscopic biopsy, excisional biopsy- to name a few 

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