Renal Hypertension & Renovascular Disease Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Renal Hypertension & Renovascular Disease Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Renal hypertension is a medical condition where kidney disease causes high blood pressure. In this condition the renal artery that supplies blood to the kidneys narrows or gets blocked when a plaque, which is a sticky and fatty substance, deposits along the inner lining of the arteries supplying blood to the kidneys. This condition is also commonly referred to as renovascular disease and renal artery stenosis. When the blood flow to the kidneys is hampered, the kidneys respond by releasing hormones that retain sodium and water. The blood vessels are overloaded with additional fluid and the blood pressure rises.  

Renal Hypertension Causes
One of the primary renal hypertension causes in India is the narrowing or blockage of renal artery that delivers blood to the kidney due to high cholesterol. When this happens, the kidney mistakes this low blood supply to be a cause of low blood pressure or dehydration. As a result, it releases hormones in the body that aid in retention of more water and sodium, which in turn causes high blood pressure.

What causes renal artery narrowing? Arthrosclerosis or hardening of arteries is the most common cause. However, in rare cases a condition called fibromuscular dysplasia can also be the reason. In this condition, the structure of the renal artery is abnormal for reasons that are unclear.       

Renal Hypertension Symptoms
One of the perils of having this condition is the fact that there may be no symptoms until the hypertension is diagnosed and is sometimes very high. Common symptoms of hypertension are headache, blurred vision or double vision, confusion, turbid urine or nose bleed. In severe cases patient may come in with symptoms of stroke. In a number of cases organ damage would have already occurred before hypertension is diagnosed.  

Majority of people with renovascular disease don’t even experience high BP symptoms or any other renal hypertension symptoms. This is dangerous mainly because high blood pressure causes organ damages without being noticed.  

Renal artery stenosis leads to numerous kidney diseases where functions of the kidney slowly decline. Even here, unless the condition is well advanced, chronic kidney diseases cause no symptoms.

As there are no usually renal hypertension symptoms, your doctor may suspect that you have this condition when your blood pressure fails to get controlled even with medication or if are suffering from unexplained chronic kidney disease.

Renal Hypertension Treatment
The following are the different renal hypertension treatment a doctor will recommend in India depending on the nature of the condition:

Medications or a combination of anti-hypertensives are used to control high blood pressure in renal hypertension. In most cases of renovascular disease due to narrowing of renal artery, medications are effective in controlling blood pressure.

Minimally Invasive Procedures
Sometimes medication may fail to control high blood pressure caused by renal hypertension due to blockage in renal artery. In such a situation, minimally invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting can aid in improving blood flow to the kidneys. These procedures are effective and in some cases multiple stents may have to be used.

Renal Hypertension Surgery
The doctor can recommend surgery only when medication, angioplasty and stenting fails to help. During surgery, the surgeon bypasses the blocked renal artery by sewing a healthy blood vessel next to it.

Angioplasty, stenting and surgery for renal artery stenosis significantly improve blood pressure.  It also enables a patient to entirely stop taking blood pressure medication.

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