Menstruation Cycle & Menstrual Disorders

Menstrual disorders are problems that affect women's normal menstrual cycle. They include painful cramps during uterine bleeding, abnormally heavy uterine bleeding, scanty bleeding, spotting and change in duration of the menstrual cycle, to name a few. Menstrual cycle occurs during the years between puberty and menopause. Menstruation is colloquially called a "period". Normal menstrual cycle is the monthly flow of blood from the uterus through the cervix and out through the vagina and occurs once in 28 days and lasts for 3-5 days.

Different Types of Menstrual Disorders
1. Disorders of ovulation
Infrequent or irregular ovulation (cycles below 8 cycles a year or over 36 days), anovulation or absence of ovulation leading to unpredictable interval, duration of bleeding and sometimes infertility.

2. Polymenorrhoea
This is when cycles are at interval of less than 21 days. Oligomenorrhoea is infrequent, often light bleeding occurring at intervals exceeding 35 days. Amenorrhoea is absence of bleeding in a woman of reproductive age.

3. Disorders of flow
Hypomenorrhoea is abnormally light bleeding during periods.
  • Menorrhagia: is abnormally heavy and prolonged bleeding during the menstrual cycles, which is so heavy that it interferes with the daily activities of women. Some women tend to pass clots. Over time such women tend to develop anemia
  • Dysmenorrhoea: Many women suffer from a painful menstrual cycles. This varies from slight lower abdominal pain when the flow occurs to a wringing cramp like pain, which disrupts routine activities.
  • Premenstrual Syndrome: A group of symptoms, fluctuating mood, needless tension, irritability, fatigue, breast tenderness are a few symptoms which some women have a few days before the onset of a period and lasts until the period begins.  
Ways prevent Menstrual Disorders
Consult a gynecologist if the above symptoms are present. You may be prescribed symptomatic medicines or hormones after a detailed examination, which may include some tests.  Maintaining a healthy diet and a regular exercise regime are one of the best ways to prevent menstrual disorder. By reducing the intake of refined sugars, nicotine, alcohol and exercising at least 4 times a week can help make one's menstrual cycle normal.

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